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    減緩育肥豬生長速度的營養措施:在胴體組成和豬肉質量方面的應用

    發布單位:天津瑞孚農牧科技集團有限公司

    查看次數:1220

    時間:2021-01-21
          盡管養豬業主要目的在于提高生長速度,但是偶爾也會減緩育肥豬生長速度,比如當屠宰工廠產能受限時。有多種日糧措施可以降低育肥豬生長速度,這樣當屠宰廠產能恢復時豬也處于最佳體重。但是這些措施對豬胴體質量大部分指標的影響仍未知。因此,本試驗的目的在于評估育肥末期減緩生長速度的日糧措施的有效性,并評估其對胴體組成和豬肉質量的影響。
          試驗選用897頭豬(125±2kg,公母混群),隨機分至48個圈,并接受6個日糧處理,每個處理8圈。試驗日糧包括:對照組(典型育肥期日糧);氯化鈣組(日糧中添加3%氯化鈣);玉米組(日糧中無豆粕,玉米含量97%);異亮氨酸缺乏組;15%中性洗滌纖維組(NDF,日糧中添加豆皮,NDF含量15%);20%NDF組(日糧中添加豆皮,NDF含量20%)。試驗期42天,每圈記錄體重和飼料采食量。在試驗第14、28、42天分三批屠宰,收集胴體數據。每批屠宰的豬中,每個處理收集20頭豬的里脊肉(總120頭),分析豬肉質量指標。
          全期來看,氯化鈣組、玉米組、20%NDF組豬的生長速度較對照組有顯著下降(P<0.001)。但是只有氯化鈣組和20%NDF組的采食量顯著降低(P<0.001)。氯化鈣和玉米組飼料效率顯著下降(P<0.001)。氯化鈣組第14、28、42天胴體重都顯著降低,玉米組、20%NDF組在第28、42天屠宰時的胴體重也比對照組顯著下降(P<0.001)??傮w來看,氯化鈣組和20%NDF組胴體瘦肉率更高,而玉米組第42天時背膘顯著增加(P<0.05)。與對照組相比,氯化鈣組里脊肉pH顯著降低,星形探針指標(star probe)顯著增加(P<0.05)。所有處理組滴水失重、蒸煮失重、堅硬度、大理石評分沒有顯著差異(P≥0.117)。
          總之,試驗結果說明一些日糧手段可以降低育肥豬生長速度,而不對豬的行為產生負面影響。但是,其會影響胴體組成和質量,說明在使用相關日糧措施減緩生長速度時應當考慮其對豬肉質量的影響。


    Nutritional approaches to slow late finishing pig growth: implications on carcass composition and pork quality

    Although pork producers typically aim to optimize growth rates, occasionally it is necessary to slow growth, such as when harvest facility capacity is limited. In finishing pigs, numerous dietary strategies can be used to slow growth so pigs are at optimal slaughter body weights when harvest facility capacity and/or access is restored. However, the impact of these diets on pork carcass quality is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dietary strategies to slow growth in late finishing pigs and evaluate their effects on carcass composition and pork quality. Mixed-sex pigs (n = 897; 125 ± 2 kg BW) were randomly allotted across 48 pens and assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments (n = 8 pens/treatment): (1) Control diet representative of a typical finisher diet (CON); (2) diet containing 3% calcium chloride (CaCl2); (3) diet containing 97% corn and no soybean meal (Corn); (4) diet deficient in isoleucine (LowIle); (5) diet containing 15% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from soybean hulls (15% NDF); and (6) diet containing 20% NDF from soybean hulls (20% NDF). Over 42 d, pen body weights and feed disappearance were collected. Pigs were harvested in 3 groups (14, 28, and 42 d on feed) and carcass data collected. From the harvest group, 1 loin was collected from 120 randomly selected carcasses (20 loins/treatment) to evaluate pork quality traits. Overall, ADG was reduced in CaCl2, Corn, and 20% NDF pigs compared with CON pigs (P < 0.001). However, ADFI was only reduced in CaCl2 and 20% NDF pigs compared with CON (P < 0.001). Feed efficiency was reduced in CaCl2 and Corn pigs compared with CON (P < 0.001). Hot carcass weights were reduced in CaCl2 pigs at all harvest dates (P < 0.001) and were reduced in Corn and 20% NDF pigs at days 28 and 42 compared with CON pigs (P < 0.001). In general, CaCl2 and 20% NDF diets resulted in leaner carcasses, whereas the Corn diet increased backfat by 42 d on test (P < 0.05). Loin pH was reduced and star probe increased in CaCl2 pigs compared with CON pigs (P < 0.05); no treatments differed from CON pigs regarding drip loss, cook loss, color, firmness, or marbling (P ≥ 0.117). Overall, these data indicate that several dietary strategies can slow finishing pig growth without evidence of behavioral vices. However, changes to carcass composition and quality were also observed, indicating quality should be taken into consideration when choosing diets to slow growth.

    文章來源:豬營養國際論壇
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    午夜亚洲国产理论片2020
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